Electricity Saving Tips For Homes And Offices

Cooktop Comparison: Gas, Electric and Induction

By on April 22, 2016

Recently while interacting with a Bijli Bachao reader, we came across a question: which cooktop should I buy Gas or Induction? And this made us realize: Hey! We didn’t think about it! Cooking typically is a small component of the whole energy requirement in a house (especially in most middle and upper class urban homes), which some people typically ignore. Although rising LPG/PNG costs does cause a furore but rarely do we compare it with other form of energy: electricity. But with increasing popularity of Induction cook-top one has to really compare how different types of cook-top stack up against each other. Truly speaking, we did not find glaring benefit of one over other, so we just present facts in this article.

Types of cooktops available in market

There are 3 types of cook-tops available in market: Gas, Electric and Induction. This is how they are different:

  1. Gas: This type of cooktop has a burner on top and uses gas (LPG or PNG) to burn a flame that is used to cook food.

  2. Electric: This type of cook-top has a coil that heats up due to resistance when current passes through it. As its name, it uses electricity to generate heat and cook food.

  3. Induction: Although this type of cook-top uses electricity but it uses magnetic property of steel to directly heat the cooking vessel. Unlike other cooking methods it does not use flames or red-hot element to cook. Thus it is considered more energy efficient. Also it only heats the vessel in contact thus reduces possibility of injury.

Efficiencies of various cooktops

US Department of energy did some boiling water tests to come up with efficiency of various cook-tops (Source: US DOE) and below was the results of the same:








The efficiency mentioned above is based on the heat transferred to the pan kept on top of it. Please note that the efficiency also depends on the size of pan used compared to the size of flame/heating surface. The numbers above are based on ideal setup.

Comparing costs of sources

Looking at the numbers above one cannot decide which is better economically as one has to also factor in the costs of various sources. So we decided to compare apples to apples. There are 3 types of sources that we commonly get: LPG Cylinders, Piped Natural Gas and Electricity. Now how do these 3 compare:

Let’s take an example that we want to boil 10 ltrs of water (at 25 degrees). So the energy required for the same is:

10000 x 4.2 x 75 = 3150000 Joules.

Now this is how various sources compare:

LPG Stove

PNG Stove

Induction Cooktop

Electric Coil Cooktop

Unit Definition

1 Cylinder (14.2 kgs LPG)


1 kWH

1 kWH

Energy (in Joules) per unit





Energy (in Joules) per unit factoring efficiency





Units Required to heat 10 lts of water.





Cost per Unit (in Rs)

Rs 423 (Subsidized),

Rs 900 (Un-Subsidized)

Rs 23

Rs 5

Rs 5

Cost of heating 10 lts water (in Rs)

Rs 5.09 (Subsidized),

Rs 10.8 (Un-Subsidized)

Rs 4.33

Rs 5.21

Rs 5.91

The above table shows that though efficiency of an induction cook-top is double than that of a gas cook stove, the cost of using it may not be proportional. The final values may vary based on the cost of various sources available to you as price of LPG, PNG or electricity may differ.

Assumptions and Inputs for the data above:

  1. Joules per unit of LPG is taken from Wikipedia source: link.
  2. Joules per unit of PNG is taken from Wikipedia source: link.
  3. Joules per unit of electricity is taken from Wikipedia source: link.
  4. Rate of LPG cylinder is assumed to be the rate of a subsidized LPG cylinder available in Mumbai. It can vary for different cities.
  5. Rate of PNG per unit is taken at average rate of PNG unit in Mumbai. Please note PNG tariffs are slab based. If your consumption is more, rate will be higher.
  6. Electricity rate per unit is approximate average last slab rate across the country. You can check your average rate per unit using our calculator: Online Electricity Bill Calculator – For all states in India.
  7. The efficiencies may vary a little based on the usage.

Pros and Cons of various cook-tops

For Gas Stoves:

  • Pros:
  1. Gas stoves provide better cooking control. One does not have to worry too much about position and size of the utensil kept on it. Though it can impact efficiency.
  2. One does not have to depend on power cuts for cooking.
  3. Good for cooking most Indian food like chapatti, etc.
  4. No specific requirement for utensil type.
  • Cons:
  1. Inflammable and thus dangerous. Can cause burns.
  2. Heats up the surroundings as well. Can increase the cooling bills if the environment is air conditioned.
  3. Ceiling Fans cannot be used along with it.
  4. Flames do produce CO2.

For Electric Coil Cook-tops:

  • Pros:
  1. Not inflammable thus creates a little safer environment.
  2. More energy efficient than gas stoves and can be economical than gas stoves if gas is not available at subsidized rates.
  3. Not as good as a gas stove for cooking food like chapatti but still can be used.
  4. Releases less heat to the surrounding and ceiling fans can be used along with it.
  • Cons:
  1. Can cause burns when touched.
  2. Takes time to heat up.
  3. Can only be used with flat surface utensils.
  4. Inadequate power supply can stop cooking.


For Induction Cook-tops: 

  • Pros:
  1. Induction cook-tops heat faster and distribute heat more evenly.
  2. They are completely safe as they heat only when a steel or iron element comes in contact.
  3. They are easier to clean.
  4. Efficient in terms of energy use.
  5. Come with programmable temperature controls.
  6. No heat wasted as it cools quickly as one shuts it down.
  • Cons:
  1. Can only be used with steel or iron utensils. Thus the kitchen has to be adjusted accordingly.
  2. They are generally expensive than regular cook-tops.
  3. Can be used only with flat surface utensils.
  4. Inadequate power supply can stop cooking.
  5. Will not work at all for some Indian food like chapatti.
  6. Some people observe that the heating is localized and mostly happens at the center of the utensil. This makes it important to put the right sized utensil on a induction cook-top and over sized ones should not be used.

Primary and Secondary Sources of Energy

On a side note we would also like to add that Gas is a primary source of energy i.e. it is directly used in the form it is available from environment. Whereas Electricity is a secondary source of energy i.e. either coal or gas is used to generate electricity. There are transmission losses and generation losses of energy with electricity. So by the time electricity reaches your home, a lot of energy is already lost. So if we factor these losses along with efficiency, both sources work out the same and it is a personal preference or economic value that should drive the decision.





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The calculations give very good idea about energy consumption for cooking. At present the power is available plenty so, We can switch to electric cooking. and save the dollar(as we purchase petroleum for other countries) outflow. Present plant load factor PLF is only 60%, which shows that demand for power is less in the country. The government should think of encourage electric cooking similar to one of switching to LED lighting. This will reduce transport bottlenecks, gas subsidy and also the global warming


The article was helpful!
Among 1200w,1500w,1800w,&2100w which one is good for a family of 4?
We plan to use it occasionally when lpg stock not available.
Pls suggest.

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

Wattage is just like speed and electricity (or units) consumed is just like distance. If you have 3 cars with different speeds, you cannot say one will travel more distance, because if you have to travel 100 kms, all will travel 100 kms, just that one with fastest speed will reach fastest. Similarly if you want to heat water, the model with 2100 W will heat faster as compared to the one with 1200 W ... because 2100 W will be more hot. But electricity consumption will depend on how much water you want to heat and to how much temperature you want to heat it.

There is no standard which says that a particular wattage is good for family of 4. It will depend on your usage. If for a specific application you want it to heat more and heat it fast, then 2100 W would be better. Although all induction cooktops have option to set heat level, so the one with 2100 W can be operated at lower wattage.


Dear Sir,

How save health-wise is induction cooker interm of magnetic emissions. having in mind it uses magnetic energy to heat.

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

I think it is quite safe.


Hi Abhishek,
We have an Ayurvedic Industry and have to boil herbs for a long time in containers of 200 lts. We use Diesel Furnace for the same and want to shift to some more modern, efficient and safer mode. What do you suggest. Can you guide us to the right approach.
I am also the president of our Ayurvedic Mfg Association and your advise can be helpful for other industries as well.

Thank you so much

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

The maximum temperature required boiling herbs is 100 degree centigrade. I will suggest you to shift to solar powered system. Use of solar powered system is very common for cooking, where also the purpose is similar to your requirement. I had visited Sai Temple in Shirdi which has installed very large solar cooking plant. Use of solar plant for this purpose will be a development to preserve nature, clean energy for making Ayurveda drugs, saving in cost etc.

An initiative has to be taken by at least one. There are many experts in this field (search web) who will study the requirement and provide an estimate of the capital and running cost. To our estimation, solar is the best solution to your requirements. Even solar powered crematorium requiring temperature of 700-800 degree centigrade are working.


What is the average power rating of induction cooker??

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

about 1500 watts.


Hi Abhishek,

I'm a great fan of your article. I am currently making a suggestion with one of our client to substitute LPG cooktops to Induction cooktops. Can you please elaborate about your above calculation as per below:

10000 x 4.2 x 75 = 3150000 Joules

What does 10000 stands for, 4.2 is for what?, and 75 is a value of what?

Thanks in advance.


I am Indian now shifted to Maldives for work.. Great fan of your site.. Had bought a new AC based on your reply to my query.. Thanks
Now I again need your help..
Considering things very expensive here.. I wanted to know what will be cheaper for me for eg. to boil 1 litre of water
1. Boiling in a vessel on LPG gas costing 860 rupees for 11 kg cylinder
2. Boiling in electric kettle 1850-2200W power. Cost of 1 Unit of electricity here is 8.6 rupees

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

Hi CJ,

It will depend a lot on the insulation of the material used in the electric kettle. If the insulation is good then it's efficiency will be high, else it would be low. It depends on how hot you feel outside the kettle when you heat water. If it is too hot then you are loosing heat outside and the method is not very efficient. On the whole looking at number, I have a feeling that LPG would be better.


To begin with, I am fan of induction stove for following reasons:
1. It is less riskier, as it has no flame and thus can not cause fire due to mis handling even by children
2 There is no heat wastage
3. Temperatures are better controlled
4. It has a timer which is very useful. Stove automatically turns off after the set time
5. The utencils used are of iron/ steel, even for chapati making, these have to be just flat bottomed. ( we use basic cast iron karai for making dishes which supposedly adds iron to the food. And highly efficient )
6. It can be used on the dining table itself ( I have experienced it in a restaurant for serving thai dishes)
7. So easy to clean and maintain.
8. Overall space required is minimal vs gas stove with cylinder

I also disagree that gas supply is more efficient than electric supply due to transmission losses. If gas is instead used to produce electricity then there will be lesser pollution and capital cost in terms of maintaining separate infrastructure for gas supply.

These are my views and would appreciate informed views preferably with credible data to back up


What is difference in rating of gas stove in kW for LPG VS PNG


What is difference in rating of gas burner for log and ongoing in term of kW


pls guide which rice cooker to buy for family of four.


compared to microwave is induction cooking cheaper ?


Yes, and much faster, so there is a reduced time that it is on for.

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

No. Not really. There is much less energy loss in Microwave.


can u give me same report in comparison between kerosene,coal,wood and induction

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

I am sorry, we do not have the data for the same.


Hi abhishek,
I an col amit bector, Looking fir a durable energy efficient induction cook top inalsa easy cook lx has been discontinued. Pls suggest which one I should go for.

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

Hello Col Bector,

Copying my previous reply again:

There is no BEE star rating for induction cookers yet. The data above was collected by Consumer Voice (an organization that evaluates various appliances). They just take some sample appliances and evaluate those to give you an idea on the brand to look for. So I think if you are not getting the exact model from Inalsa, then you may look at any other model from the same brand (or any other top brand that you are familiar with). As models are not rated, it will be difficult for us to tell you an exact model to look for.


Hi abhishek,
I am looking for a good induction cook top for a family of four. It should be energy efficient and durable. Pls suggest


Kya hum induction stove par roti bana shakte h?


You have to use thick tawa /pan for kaing roti Good. If pan is thin then unequal heat can make the roti bad.

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

Roti Bahut achchi nahin banti hai induction stove par.


Give example computation of induction cooker per hour? And computation of electric stove per hour.. plss


which gas stove brand is best in terms of safety?Gas safe is best one .pl. reply

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

You should look at ISI mark on the gas stoves as they follow BIS standards for safety.


The paper "Induction Cooking Technology Design and Assessment" presented at the 2014 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings

shows that actual induction cooking efficiency is 75% - 77%, so lower than the 84% used up to now as reference value.


In December 2014 a new test procedure for cooking products was proposed by DoE to allow efficiency comparison among induction, electric resistance, and gas cooking tops and ranges. A hybrid test block is suggested, made of aluminum and ferromagnetic steel, suitable for tests on induction cookers too (the old aluminum-only block could not be heated by induction). The proposed rule lists results of real lab tests with the hybrid block. For comparable (large) cooking elements the following efficiencies were measured with ±0.5% accuracy: 70.7% - 73.6% for induction, 71.9% for electric coil, 43.9% for gas.

Here again induction efficiencies (measured by DoE) are quite lower than 84%.


Abhishek Jain (Mod)

Thanks for the information Guido.


Hi, I stay in a hostel, and would like to do some small cooking like frying etc. in my room. Which do you think is the best option among electric rice cooker or induction for me? Obviously, I cannot use LPG.

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

Hi Sanchari,

Induction cooker will be best for you.


Many thanks for noble work. I wish to buy lpg cook top/burner/stove. Which is most efficient? As I heard that ceramic burners are most efficient but could not find in market.

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

Hello Mr Deshmukh,

Firstly I must say that you should surely buy a stove with BIS (or ISI) certification. This ensures that the cook stove is at least 60% efficient. BEE did start rating cook stoves and the standards that BEE had set were quite high:

1 Star If Thermal efficiency ? 68% &<72%
2 Star If Thermal efficiency ? 72% &<75%
3 Star If Thermal efficiency ? 75% &<78%
4 Star If Thermal efficiency ? 78% &<81%
5 Star If Thermal efficiency? 81%

But I guess the implementation was not successful. Currently they do not have any data on their website for efficient cookstoves. However because this rating was set, I believe that there must be some models with high thermal efficiency. But unfortunately I am not able to find them. Indane sells energy efficient gas stoves: http://indane.co.in/stove.php .... but their efficiency level would be 1 star. Unfortunately the brands do not market their thermal efficiency and thus online websites do not have this information.


Thank Abhishek for the reply,

We Indians are not a scientific minded society. LPG consumption takes place in millions of home and still we are not aware about the efficiency of the LPG cook top. I feel it is a neglected subjects from the experts and we are being exploited by the crooks under the influence of fancy advertisements. If we use the efficient gadgets the energy saved will be hugh and dependance on other country can be reduced up to certain extent. I feel there must be a law where every energy consuming appliance should clearly mark the efficiency and other related information.

I could not find any ceramic burner in the market though they are more efficient.

Thanks again.

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

well, most people do not look at technical specifications while buying appliances, and it is not just with efficiency but also with other aspects. This is something that manufacturers exploit. There is no standardisation in the way manufacturers provide specs and thus they only highlight things that can help them in marketing. There is a need of more regulatory reforms around appliances in general. Just because BEE intervened, manufacturers started providing data for ACs, Refrigerators, Fans, water heaters. But most other appliances are still unattended.


I heard there is induction stove added up with a music system to it... I just wanted to know about it...I mean the company which dealing with it. And deals more clearly. .... please do the needful at earliest


Nice article..

According to me, In country like India the electricity is not reliable option. So for food we cannot depend on that. However, we have option like Gas stove burner. As limitation on fuel, Gas also has to be conserved. Its savings must be our motto.

I have 2 queries :

1. As per manufacturing end they are claiming 68% efficiency for Gas Stove burner.(http://indane.co.in/stove.php) Why 40% considered??

2. What are the loss in this heating process?? so that we can resolve that increase efficiency.Like one can use Cu bottom utensils to capture more heat they are more popular in these days...likewise any solution we can found

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

Hello Mr Niraj,

Here is my response:

1) Efficiency of a standard stove is considered. Technologies are improving to increase efficiency (and will improve further). However even with 40% efficiency gas comes out to be cheaper.

2) In a standard gas stove, there is heat loss to the environment when the fire burns. A flat bottom container put on top of the stove can improve efficiency. Other utensils that are round bottom will have lower efficiency. In case of induction, there is much less energy loss as most of the energy is transferred to the utensil only. Neither the rest of the induction surface, nor the air around it gets heated up.


Absolutely right...

Do you have more article/research on this topic?? (Reduce loss or improve efficiency of Gas stove burner).

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

You can check https://www.bijlibachao.com/general-tips/save-lpg-png-used-by-cook-stoves-gas-burner.html , although we still have to cover a lot on Gas. However PCRA website has some good tips.


Thank you for recalculating the expense for heating 10 lts water, so its still cheaper to use gas.


Gould you please recalculate with calorific value of the gas 35,17 MJ for me

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

With calorific value of 35,17 MJ your expense for heating 10 lts water would be ? 0,0765.


At the end you give a story about "Primary and Secondary Sources of Energy" Ok, but without that and the cost price of the induction cooker or gas cooker, if you just count the energy used by cooking 10 lts of water and compare gas to induction use by a electricity price of ? 0,0767 Kwh and a Gas price of ? 0,3418 Cubic meter what kind of money thus it cost to use gas or induction, or witch is cheaper gas or induction.

I try to reduce my gas and electricity bill and will buy a induction cooker + cookery ware, the money I spend on a induction cooker + cookery ware is not important for me, but the gas or electricity use is.

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

Hi Arend,

A lot depends on the calorific value of the gas delivered in your house. The calculation about is assuming calorific value of 41.86 MJ/m3. Typically the range is between 37.5 and 43. Assuming the calorific value taken above is correct, you would spend about ? 0,0643 for boiling 10 lts water using gas. Whereas if you use induction, then for the same job, you would spend about ? 0,0799. So induction will be costlier than gas. Even with calorific value as low as 37.5, the cost of induction will be more than using gas. So it is more economical for you to use gas.

Hope this helps



the time used by using induction oven is far less than other conventional method will this not effect consumption of source

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

Well time is of lesser relevance. If you need "x" amount of energy to cook some food, induction will take x/0.84 amount of energy, whereas gas will take x/0.4 amount of energy. But that is total energy. Time will depend on the rate at which the energy is provided. If you have a 4 kW induction then x/0.84 will be given faster, but if you take 2 kW induction, time taken will be more. But in both the cases, energy used will be x/0.84 which is required to do the job.


I am daily using induction cooktop for making chappathi using an induction friendly flat Prestige thava. One has to continuously adjust temperature while cooking. I make dosa also on the same thava.


I second that. Majority of the daily Indian cooking can be done on Induction stove. I think your study doesn't reveal full picture. You have compared boiling 10 liters of water. How about everyday cooking only? Like boiling milk, tea, sambar,using tava to make chapati, dosa, bread toast, etc etc.Since the efficiency of induction top is high, time required is less for heating up the vessel and hence the food.So induction top should cost less money compared to gas stove.


Hi Abhishek,

Do you have a comparison/recommendation among the currently available induction stoves? Thank you!

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

Hi Arch,

Not right now. It's a research which is queue :).



Good morning dear Abhishek, thank you very much for your help.

Best Regards.

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

You are welcome Victor.



Good morning dear Abhishek, I am from Ecuador and I am interested about the effciency comparative chart, you put this link about the source of 84% efficiency in the induction cooktops; http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/residential/pdfs/cookgtsd.pdf

The problem is that I cannot get the file from that page, could you please send me the cookgtsd.pdf file to my email please?


Best Regards

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

Hi Victor,

You can look at these links as they might be helpful:



Hope this helps.



Hi Abhishek,
I want to know the gas consumption in hob compare to cooktop.Which one better to use & maintenance.

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

Hi Sourav,

I am not sure about it. It will depend a lot on the design, but I do not see a reason to have major difference between the two.


hi Sourav,
first of all in case of lightening any hob or cooktop air(oxygen) and Fuel(gas) mixture needs to take place. in case of cooktop there are lots of open space beneath the cooktop for mixing the the air with gas. but as the hobs are built-in there is not much space for mixing the air. all the mixing takes place at the burner end. so in case of hobs in the air-fuel mixture the gas is more air is less but in case of cooktop its the opposite thing.


Can induction cook tops be used on an inverter when there is power cut off?

Abhishek Jain (Mod)

They certainly can be if you have a big enough inverter to handle the load.



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